Resilience in Children

How to Cite

Mahmoudi, H., and N. Ahmadiyeh. “Resilience in Children: Within a Spiritual, Social, and Neurobiological Framework”. The Journal of Bahá’í Studies, vol. 12, no. 1-4, Dec. 2002, pp. 31-55, doi:10.31581/jbs-12.1-4.2(2002).


This paper explores the spiritual, psychological, and biological aspects of children and resilience. It analyzes the positive role of early exposure to hardship and argues that the benefits stem from exposure to events requiring adaptation to change. This adaptation occurs at the level of the brain as well as at the level of the soul and spirit, and is mediated by neuroendocrine and molecular events as well as by forces acting upon the soul. Exposure to hardship thus allows the child to learn flexibility and to find his or her sphere of useful service in a constantly changing world.
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. If you wish to adapt, remix, transform, or build upon this work in any way, you may not distribute your work without first contacting the Editor for permission.

Copyright © 2002 Hoda Mahmoudi, Nasim Ahmadiyeh