How to Cite

Ghadirian, A.-M. “Depression: Biological, Psychosocial, and Spiritual Dimensions and Treatment”. The Journal of Bahá’í Studies, vol. 25, no. 4, Dec. 2015, pp. 25-60, doi:10.31581/jbs-25.4.3(2015).


Depression is one of the most pervasive disorders and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Clinical depression consists of a group of disorders with various causes. Consequently, the treatment profile is also diversified. Scientific research confirms a strong presence of biological, psychosocial, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of major depression. Does depression lead to certain medical illnesses? What are possible risks and protective factors? What are current treatment options? What is the impact of stigma in preventing individuals from seeking treatment? Do religious beliefs and spiritual values play a role in depression? Since the Bahá’í Faith teaches the unity and harmony of science and religion, what insights do the Bahá’í teachings offer regarding this disease that are particularly valuable?
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Copyright © 2015 Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian