Why Constructive Resilience?
This issue cover features beautiful artwork by Bunch Washington with people of many colours lined up in abstract, wearing wonderful robes and patterns. The patterns blend together, as a visual representation of unity in diversity.
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How to Cite

Penn, M. “Why Constructive Resilience? An Autobiographical Essay”. The Journal of Bahá’í Studies, vol. 30, no. 3, May 2021, pp. 25-35, doi:10.31581/jbs-30.3.314(2020).


I was born in a small house that had been built by my uncles on a rocky and barren piece of land that my grandmother acquired by saving the meager wages that she earned cleaning White folks’ houses in North Carolina. Since the land was not fertile, we could not grow upon it anything to eat. In addition, because the land was not yet connected to the city, there was no running water, no electricity, and no inside toilet. We went to the bathroom in an outhouse located down the road.....

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. If you wish to adapt, remix, transform, or build upon this work in any way, you may not distribute your work without first contacting the Editor for permission.

Copyright © 2021 Michael L. Penn